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 What makes a good photograph, critiquing photos!

What makes a good photograph?

Found this floating about on the web and it covers the basic photographic elements.

A guide to critiquing images.

What makes a good or great photograph is a subject of much debate.
There is however some general agreement on things that one should
consider when viewing and evaluating a photograph. For experienced
photographers most of these considerations have become second nature;
for less experienced photographers I think it can be valuable,
particularly when submitting photographs, to do some self-evaluation
according to some of these generally agreed upon principles. I have
started with a list of some principles applied to topside photographs,
which can usually be applied underwater, and then I will add some
ideas that I have learned regarding underwater photographs. I hope
that we can generate some constructive comments to add to this list,
particularly from the pros. As always, rules in art and photography,
can be broken at will, but it is still valuable in my opinion to
evaluate a photograph from this perspective, even if only to see where
a rule may have been broken with good effect. The following list is a
summary of things I have read and learned from others. There is
nothing new or original here.

Hopefully this list and any discussion that follows, will be helpful,
especially to beginners and new posters, particularly in the image
galleries. I think it will also be helpful when regular members
critique other peoples images, particularly newcomers, to refer them
to these guidelines and critique accordingly.

1. FOCUS

Most of the time the main subject at least should be in focus and
sharp even if the background and other components may not be. Notice
the depth of field and see if it is working well for the image.
Evaluate the depth of field, is the depth of focus effectively
controlled with aperture and lens angle of view to have the desired
areas sharp, and others out of focus?
There may be times where the photographer is purposely trying to
create an out of focus or softer effect, or trying to create the
effect of movement.

2. CLEAR SUBJECT IN THE PHOTOGRAPH

Does the photograph have a purpose. Is it clear what the main subject
or subjects of the photograph are? If one has to look for it or the
photographer has to explain it, this may be a problem. On the other
hand the photographer may be trying to create some mystery within the
photograph, though generally the photograph should have a purpose.

3. COMPOSITION

Again is it clear what the main subject is? Are there areas or parts
of the photograph that do not contribute to the overall visual effect
of the image.Is the subject lost in a distracting background? Consider
vertical versus horizontal orientation of the image. How do the lines
of the subject lead into or out of the photograph? Should one get
closer, does the photograph need to be cropped preferably at the time
the photograph is taken. Consider Rules of composition like 'Rule of
Thirds', 'Bottom right or left'. Does your eye move easily within the
photograph or do they jump around?

4. LIGHTING AND EXPOSURE.

Is the lighting well balanced, and does it support the elements of the
composition to create the desired effect. Are there good shadow and
highlight details with good range of shades in between? No 'blown'
highlights except for some desired specular highlights. Does the
lighting direction fit with the composition, are any of the lighting
elements creating a distraction? Does the image have adequate
contrast, is it a high key or low key image, and does this contribute
or detract from the image. Is the use of ambient and strobe used to
good effect?

5. COLOUR.

Particularly in underwater photography is the colour well balanced,
are there any colour casts that detract from the image or do they
genuinely help create mood or effect.

6. WHAT MAKES THIS PHOTOGRAPH DIFFERENT OR SPECIAL?

Is it an interesting compositioin, does one see an interesting
perspective. Look for dramatic angles, lines, colors, textures, and shapes

7. EMOTION AND MOOD?

How does this shot make you fee? Does it create a mood or generate an
emotional response? After all the technical discussion, good or great
photographs usually evoke an emotional response at some level.

I think this is a good start that can apply to most photographs, there
are other elements particularly for underwater photography like in a
fish portrait the main subject should not be swimming away from the
photograph etc. I invite others to contribute their ideas,
particularly for specific types of photographs like close-focus wide
angle, Macro, Fish Portraits, Reefscapes, Use of models and lights
etc. This is obviously a huge subject, and books have been written
about it.

  

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